Difference between revisions of "Eventful Universe"

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(What Purpose do Clocks Serve)
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It is informative to consider why clocks are used in computer systems and to see that there are lessons to be learned. in a mechanized society where the time value of money is of the essence of every financial transaction, the it has become a socially acknowledged fact that time management of every aspect o our lives is the highest goal to producing the greatest output of goods and services for the least expenditure of our precious time. Good time keeping was importing in our lives and in our science. In short, it works for us in a modern society and that is fully reflected in the focus of lives. Power, the expenditure of energy over time, has become the goal of man and of learning. Good clocks are important in business and in the synchronization of GPS satellites that require them for establishing position on the planet.
 
It is informative to consider why clocks are used in computer systems and to see that there are lessons to be learned. in a mechanized society where the time value of money is of the essence of every financial transaction, the it has become a socially acknowledged fact that time management of every aspect o our lives is the highest goal to producing the greatest output of goods and services for the least expenditure of our precious time. Good time keeping was importing in our lives and in our science. In short, it works for us in a modern society and that is fully reflected in the focus of lives. Power, the expenditure of energy over time, has become the goal of man and of learning. Good clocks are important in business and in the synchronization of GPS satellites that require them for establishing position on the planet.
  
Event-driven (aka on-demand) computing can be substantially lest expensive than fully synchronous chips. While some modern chips selectively turn on or off cores as they are needed for computations, the core capability of the chip is powered full time. One example of event-driven design is the IBM TrueNorth chip consumes only 70 mW of power emulating the asynchronous and neural design of the human brain.
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Event-driven (aka on-demand) computing can be substantially lest expensive than fully synchronous chips. While some modern chips selectively turn on or off cores as they are needed for computations, the core capability of the chip is powered full time. One example of event-driven design is the IBM TrueNorth chip consumes only 70 mW of power emulating the asynchronous and neural design of the human brain.<ref>P. A. Menoal + 12, ''A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface''. Science. 345 (6197): 668–73. doi:10.1126/science.1254642. PMID 25104385. S2CID 12706847.</ref> Intel followed with their Loihi chip.<ref>Kyung M Song,  (March 2020). ''Skyrmion-based artificial synapses for neuromorphic computing''. Nature Electronics. 3 (3): 148–155. arXiv:1907.00957. doi:10.1038/s41928-020-0385-0.</ref>
  
 
Asynchronous (self-clocking) computer circuits are imagined to be low power implementation as compared to synchronous (centralized clock) chip designs.<ref> Seven M. Nowick, ''Asynchronous Design -- Part 1: Overview and Recent Advances'' (2015-05) IEEE Design and Test 32(3):5-18 DOI: 10.1109/MDAT.2015.2413759 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331181563_Asynchronous_Design_--_Part_1_Overview_and_Recent_Advances</ref> As chips become larger and compute cores focus on particular parts of the compute load, some level of asynchrony appears to be the only viable integration technique. Often each core type will have its own clock and communicate asynchronously among cores. But for high speed digital links, the communications clock is established first and then all following data is synchronized to that clock.  In short there is a growing interest in improving reliability and speed with asynchronous chip designs and interconnects, but all long distance digital communications links appear to be destined to be clocked between the sender and the receiver. Most communications protocols blend the data and the clock into a single protocol. For multiple access network protocols, asynchronous makes sense. For point to point protocols synchronous appears to be the most efficient..
 
Asynchronous (self-clocking) computer circuits are imagined to be low power implementation as compared to synchronous (centralized clock) chip designs.<ref> Seven M. Nowick, ''Asynchronous Design -- Part 1: Overview and Recent Advances'' (2015-05) IEEE Design and Test 32(3):5-18 DOI: 10.1109/MDAT.2015.2413759 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331181563_Asynchronous_Design_--_Part_1_Overview_and_Recent_Advances</ref> As chips become larger and compute cores focus on particular parts of the compute load, some level of asynchrony appears to be the only viable integration technique. Often each core type will have its own clock and communicate asynchronously among cores. But for high speed digital links, the communications clock is established first and then all following data is synchronized to that clock.  In short there is a growing interest in improving reliability and speed with asynchronous chip designs and interconnects, but all long distance digital communications links appear to be destined to be clocked between the sender and the receiver. Most communications protocols blend the data and the clock into a single protocol. For multiple access network protocols, asynchronous makes sense. For point to point protocols synchronous appears to be the most efficient..

Revision as of 12:54, 21 November 2020

Full Title

The Eventful Universe is a model based on a focus on the events that happen between objects in the universe.

Author

Thomas C. Jones

Date

2020-11-18

Abstract

Models of the universe typically focus on the externes of very large or very small elements, like collisions of galaxies or of photons and electrons. These are both events between identified objects, which are called entities in computer science. But the models immediately assume a set of facts about one particular mathematical set of assumptions like continuous and well defined space and time. In these models constructs like Lagrangian or Hamiltonian are precise. In contrast this article will focus on the events themselves, rather than the commonly accepted assumptions, at least so far as time in concerned. That means that no mathematical formula that include time as a variable will be assumed to be a fundamental truth. The major theme of this article is that if physics wants to learn about how evolution can provide answers to open issues, then the best place to look is at places where evolution has been successfully applied. As one example machine learning has already learned that evolution can bring new techniques and insights.

The Model

There will be two models addressed. First the emission of a single photon by an excited electron and its subsequent absorption by another election. and second the emission of an entangled photon pair and the subsequent absorption of one of those photons.

What Purpose do Clocks Serve

It is informative to consider why clocks are used in computer systems and to see that there are lessons to be learned. in a mechanized society where the time value of money is of the essence of every financial transaction, the it has become a socially acknowledged fact that time management of every aspect o our lives is the highest goal to producing the greatest output of goods and services for the least expenditure of our precious time. Good time keeping was importing in our lives and in our science. In short, it works for us in a modern society and that is fully reflected in the focus of lives. Power, the expenditure of energy over time, has become the goal of man and of learning. Good clocks are important in business and in the synchronization of GPS satellites that require them for establishing position on the planet.

Event-driven (aka on-demand) computing can be substantially lest expensive than fully synchronous chips. While some modern chips selectively turn on or off cores as they are needed for computations, the core capability of the chip is powered full time. One example of event-driven design is the IBM TrueNorth chip consumes only 70 mW of power emulating the asynchronous and neural design of the human brain.[1] Intel followed with their Loihi chip.[2]

Asynchronous (self-clocking) computer circuits are imagined to be low power implementation as compared to synchronous (centralized clock) chip designs.[3] As chips become larger and compute cores focus on particular parts of the compute load, some level of asynchrony appears to be the only viable integration technique. Often each core type will have its own clock and communicate asynchronously among cores. But for high speed digital links, the communications clock is established first and then all following data is synchronized to that clock. In short there is a growing interest in improving reliability and speed with asynchronous chip designs and interconnects, but all long distance digital communications links appear to be destined to be clocked between the sender and the receiver. Most communications protocols blend the data and the clock into a single protocol. For multiple access network protocols, asynchronous makes sense. For point to point protocols synchronous appears to be the most efficient..

Irreversibility and Power Consumption

As the Lagrangian is designed to find the path with the least power transfers (as measured by the rate of change of the difference between potential and kinetic energy) so to the attempt to find low power computer solutions

Hypothesis

For time to exist photons should be emitted (nearly) always in entangled pairs.

References

  1. P. A. Menoal + 12, A million spiking-neuron integrated circuit with a scalable communication network and interface. Science. 345 (6197): 668–73. doi:10.1126/science.1254642. PMID 25104385. S2CID 12706847.
  2. Kyung M Song, (March 2020). Skyrmion-based artificial synapses for neuromorphic computing. Nature Electronics. 3 (3): 148–155. arXiv:1907.00957. doi:10.1038/s41928-020-0385-0.
  3. Seven M. Nowick, Asynchronous Design -- Part 1: Overview and Recent Advances (2015-05) IEEE Design and Test 32(3):5-18 DOI: 10.1109/MDAT.2015.2413759 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331181563_Asynchronous_Design_--_Part_1_Overview_and_Recent_Advances