Modeling of a system that is under constant change creates challenges that not not well understood.
Call it Induction, Correlation, Simulation or Modeling, the basic rule is to start with a system at equilibrium or Homeostasis so that the math is not too difficult. But real systems are never at equilibrium, those are all figments of the physicist's mind. If a system is at equilibrium, it is not able to change, and so if of limited interest to anybody. Even when an equilibrium can be achieved in a laboratory, the question is still present. What exactly are we comparing reality to? Or, in other words, are we discussion auto- corelation or cross-correlation? Is the system self-similar or a model of other other physical variable that might be nothing like. For example physicists equate black-holes with information theory or gas particles. But philosophers think the physicists might be all wrong about that. Even philosophers can't egree with the Platonists telling us that the ideal form comes first and the reality is just a poor copy of the ideal and the empiricists telling us that first we build a chair and then we create an abstract idea of "chair". But in reality the chair is nothing by an anthropomorphic attempt to minimize energy consumption so a human, who is just the creation of random acts of evolution, can put their attention to some details of a social system that is itself an accidental organization of thousands of years of human attempts to avoid killing each other. Not only the the chair a complete accident, but so is the human.
Without induction, the human species, or any other mammalian species, would not have survived long enough to procreate. They need induction to understand where to find food, and how to avoid becoming food. The philosophical argument about whether induction can lead to truth pales in comparison to where we would be without it. So too with the discussion about mathematical models of reality. Reality exists without the models. The models do not exist without reality.
- Marco Tavora, Black Hole Entropy and the Laws of Thermodynamics The Remarkable Similarities Between the Black Holes Mechanics and Laws of Thermodynamics (2020-04-11) Medium https://medium.com/cantors-paradise/black-hole-entropy-and-the-laws-of-thermodynamics-d85fd5d5cce2
- Craig Callender, quoted by Brendan Z. Foster Are We All Wrong About Black Holes? (2020-09-05) quantamagazine.org/craig-callender-are-we-all-wrong-about-black-holes-20190905/