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Carl Ellison and his colleagues have coined the term ‘ceremony’ to describe interactions that span a mixed network of human and cybernetic system components – the full channel from web server to human brain. A ceremony goes beyond cyber protocols to ensure the integrity of communication with the user. This concept calls for profoundly changing the user’s experience so it becomes predictable and unambiguous enough to allow for informed decisions.


  • Web Authentication defines Ceremony as an extension of the concept of a network protocol, with human nodes alongside computer nodes and with communication links that include user interface(s), human-to-human communication, and transfers of physical objects that carry data. What is out-of-band to a protocol is in-band to a ceremony. In Web Authentication, Registration and Authentication are ceremonies, and an authorization gesture is often a component of those ceremonies.


The information came from a Kim Cameron article dated 2010.