Health Care Native App Example

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Full Title

Best Practice example of a Native Application designed for patients with a modern Smart Phone.

Context

Matching patient health care records and interoperability among EHR have been hard problems to address. Much of the focus has been on the health care providers rather than the patient. But now the patient has guaranteed access to their medical records, they might be able to overcome some of the resistance to sharing seen today. Patient control of the distribution of medical records would give patients both the appearance and the reality of limited access to private health care information. This example of a patient-oriented Native App for them to host on their personal Smart Phone is designed to show how patients might be the best answer to health care sharing in any case.

The Pew Trust report[1] sponsored a collaboration with the Rand corporation and reported this conclusion about an opportunity for a Patient-empowered solution:
In a report released in August 2018, RAND recommended a patient-empowered approach for matching involving two main components: validating patient information and a smartphone application, which would then be used together once developed.

Parties to any Transaction

  • The patient with the Smart Phone and the app is always a part of the transaction.
    • In some cases the phone is simply for Authentication, or records matching, but that is not the primary purpose.
    • The phone can be the source of information to be passed to the relying party from either medical or personal sources.
  • The Relying Party is a catchall term for the party seeking the information or validation, including:
    • A PCP - private care provide where the patient appears in person with the phone in hand.
    • Any site with PHI - patient health information in an EHR - Electronic Health Record - either in person on on the web.

HL7 FHIR Smart Application

  • A SMART App Launch Frame is in development within the HL7 FHIR standardization group. That document describes four use cases which are here annotated.
Patient Apps launch standalone Native App This example
Patient Apps launch from a portal Progressive Web App
Provider apps launch standalone Native App
Provider apps launch from a portal Progressive Web App

Problems

  • Smart phone apps have been generated by some large practices, often with support of their IT service providers. These apps do not provide patients with any choice other than "take it or leave it".
  • There has been no sound business case to support the development of patient-oriented apps in the marketplace.
  • Covered entities have HIPAA regulations to control how they handle the patient's medical records; but there is no such rules in place when medical records are under the control of the patient (or guardian).

Solutions

Several trends have been seen that can enable such a Patient-empowered solution:

  1. Matching of patient records to the patient is a recognized problem that requires some solution to prevent unwanted patient outcomes. Efforts at a universal health care identifier for patients seems to be as far in the future as ever and no other solution has appeared on the horizon.
  2. The CARIN Alliance has published a code of ethics for health care information that moves beyond the control of HIPAA covered entities.
  3. The role of Smart Phones in Authentication has been expanding (see that wiki page for specific examples.)
  4. Microsoft has just introduced[2] a open-source protocol to address performance issues with Blockchain. ION, or Identify Overlay Network, is based on an earlier blockchain project built by Microsoft and others called Sidetree.

Information Sharing

It is generally agreed that it is better for doctors to have a full set of patient health histories to enable adequate care, especially in life-or-death emergency cases. This sample shows a way for the patient to both acquire and distribut health care information. Since the progress on giving patients access to their own health records may be more likely than cooperation among competing health care enterprises, a Smart Phone app is one way to overcome the blockage to information sharing. This path also gives the patient more control on exactly what information is shared. While patient choice may result in some critical information being with-held, more choice will give the patients greater confidence in sharing, which could have beneficial effects on health outcomes.

Authentication

  • The app will act as an authencator to other medical records providers.
  • It can provide local access with bluetooth, NFC or QR code displayed on the scree.
  • It will support remote authentication with a variety of Web Authentication methods inlcude FIDO U2F.
  • It is likely that a single anchor for a country's health ecosystem is required where any patient or provider can learn the status of any Web Site by providing metadata about the entity that operates the Web Site from a Federation Trust Registry.
  • It is likely that the entity operating the Web Site will not be the health service Provider, and so a "On-behalf-of" Identifier is likely to be required as well.

Verified Information

  • A Smart Phone can verify in very simple ways, such as receiving an SMS message with a code to provide to the Relying Party, but the app is not required for that.
  • Verification of the phone number would help maintain contact information the the patient as well as providing verification.
  • The app as a wider range of value types it can display for verification by the Relying Party.
  • The app can simply ask the patient for a gesture or finger swipe to approve an transaction or simple identity.
  • The app can even respond to update requests from the Relying Party.

Patient's Rights

Deborah C. Peel, MD Founder and President Patient Privacy Rights

www.patientprivacyrights.org

https://patientprivacyrights.org/health-privacy-summit/

Patient Experience

  • The best Patient Experience is likely to be enabled by giving the patients the choice of which app to host on their phone based on their own experience with phone apps.
  • The patient experience could easily continue to tracking medications or other health plan conformance.

Threat Models

Organizations should develop system threat models for mobile devices and the resources that are accessed through the mobile devices. Selections that apply to Smart Phones in the hands of patients from the NIST Guidelines for Managing the Security of Mobile Devices in the Enterprise

Mobile devices often need additional protection because their nature generally places them at higher exposure to threats than other client devices (for example, desktop and laptop devices only used within the organization’s facilities and on the organization’s networks). Before designing and deploying mobile device solutions, organizations should develop system threat models. Threat modeling helps organizations to identify security requirements and to design the mobile device solution to incorporate the controls needed to meet the security requirements. Threat modeling involves identifying resources of interest and the feasible threats, vulnerabilities, and security controls related to these resources, then quantifying the likelihood of successful attacks and their impacts, and finally analyzing this information to determine where security controls need to be improved or added.

And these additional recommendations from that report:

  1. User and device authentication: requiring device authentication and/or other authentication before accessing organization resources, resetting forgotten passwords remotely, automatically locking idle devices, and remotely locking devices suspected of being left unlocked in an unsecured location.
  2. Applications: restricting which app stores may be used and which applications may be installed, restricting the permissions assigned to each application, installing and updating applications, restricting the use of synchronization services and verifying digital signatures on applications.

Additional recommendations on limiting distribution of apps can be handeled by only allowing apps that are controlled by the licensing capabilities of the manufactures' app stores.

Emergency Contact Example

. See an evolving example of this use case at http://controls.azurewebsites.net

Compatibility with FHIR Smart App

The FHIR specs are part of an overall FHIR ecosystem. This app is designed, first and foremost, to be of assistance to the patient or guardian and so will offer other services, like Authentication, which might require some additional standardization to be broadly useful.

  • FHIR published a SMART App Launch Framework which includes some details described below that will be tracked as best as possible given that the patient experience will always take precedence.
  • App launch is not fully determined at this point but will likely have several entry points. If launched from a FHIR EHR session it will set up the "launch session" via a redirect to:
https://[app launch uri]?launch=[number]&iss=https://[fhir base url]
  • When the app decides to get FHIR data it will first ask for metadata on the server to be used for the "launched instance":
GET https://[base url]/metadata
or alternately will use the <link data to get the information> if present.
  • It is not completely clear what will be returned, but the only thing of interest is the "name" of the server.
  • The first time the app communicates with the server it will use the metadata "name" to acquire trust information
  • The app will then seek to get authorization to access the data, which may require an OpenID Connect Authentication step first.
  • The "launch" ID will be generated by a FHIR server if it is the first to initiate the session. Otherwise the app will create a sid or Session ID.

Protected Data Store

  • There are a variety of data stores associated with a native app. This store contains the user personal information that binds the user to the various Web Sites where the user has an account and is not for any PHI. Note that the private key is NOT stored in the data store, but in the Trusted Execution Environment where it can be used for signing, but is not exposed to the Native App.
  • Microsoft types of isolation for UWP apps.

Details of Implementation

Next Steps

  1. Create pilot test code for validation of ideas with all participants in a live setting.
  2. Test APIs for getting data (like Blue Button)
  3. Start a directed pilot test with a specific health care provider to get real-world feedback.
  4. Test APIs for transmitting data to EHRs.
  5. Look at value add features, like tracking patient conformance with drug or other treatment options.

References

  1. Pew Charitable Trust, Enhanced Patient Matching Is Critical to Achieving Full Promise of Digital Health Records. https://www.pewtrusts.org/-/media/assets/2018/09/healthit_enhancedpatientmatching_report_final.pdf
  2. Microsoft, Microsoft unveils decentralized identity protocol that works atop the Bitcoin blockchain. (2019-05-13) https://www.geekwire.com/2019/microsoft-unveils-decentralized-identity-protocol-works-atop-bitcoin-blockchain/

Other References

  • MetaData or capabilities from FHIR - might not survive till next versions.
  • The H-ISAC Healthcare Information Sharing and Analysis Center provides a forum for coordinating, collaborating and sharing vital Physical and Cyber Threat Intelligence and best practices with each other.
  • Authenticate Node section 19 of (2018-07-24) IHE IT Infrastructure Technical Framework primarily relies on mutual authentication with no specific trust anchor other than X.509 certificate chains.
  • IDEF health wiki pages.